Appendix:Pronunciation

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The charts below show how the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is used to represent Bengenese pronunciations in Bendict entries.

Consonants[edit]

IPA Letter Example
b b bemek [ˈbe.mek]
t͡s c cin [t͡sin]
t͡ʃ č obečar [oˈbe.t͡ʃaɾ]
d d prade [ˈpra.de]
ð[a] had [hað]
f f ferde [ˈfeɾ.de]
g g ogesiter [oˈge.si.teɾ]
k[b] ogt [okt]
d͡ʒ[c] gj stingjer [ˈstin.d͡ʒeɾ]
h h had [hað]
k k lok [lok]
l l ludar [ˈlu.daɾ]
m m pomos [ˈpo.mos]
ɱ[b] samler [ˈsaɱ.leɾ]
n n noggen [ˈno.gːen]
ŋ[b] haling [ˈha.liŋ(g)]
ɲ nj manje [ˈma.ɲe]
p p kapt [kapt]
ɾ r lykonser [lɨˈkon.seɾ]
ʀ odsvédr [oðˈsvʲɛdʀ]
ʁ rr cigarret [t͡si.gaˈʁet]
s s nos [nos]
ʃ š koš [koʃ]
t t tyst [tɨst]
v v valam [ˈva.lam]
ʋ[d] valam [ˈʋa.lam]
w w hewer [ˈhe.weɾ]
ks x exerčitar [e.kseɾˈt͡ʃi.taɾ]
z z zellem [ˈzelːem]
ʒ ž ministarža [mi.nisˈtaɾ.ʒa]

Long consonants[edit]

IPA Letter Example
dd fidda [ˈfi.dːa]
ff teffet [ˈtefːet]
gg noggen [ˈnogːen]
kk blokkar [ˈblokːaɾ]
ll soll [solː]
mm numma [ˈnu.mːa]
nn enn [enː]
pp uppal [ˈu.pːal]
ss loss [losː]
dt pradt [pɾatː]
tt ettaler [eˈtːa.leɾ]

Vowels[edit]

IPA Letter Example
a a al [oˈʃal]
ɒ á tárg [tɒɾk]
æ[e] tárg [tæɾk]
ɛ æ lægar [ˈlɛ.gaɾ]
e e vet [vet]
é[f] é [jɛ]
ʲɛ svéd [svʲɛð]
i i asti [ˈas.ti]
ə í spraví [ˈspɾa.və]
o o jomat [ˈjo.mat]
ø ó tóp [tøp]
u u edrun [ˈe.dɾun]
y ú múndig [ˈmyn.dik]
ɨ y lydelse [lɨˈdel.se]

Phonological charts[edit]

Consonants[edit]

Sounds between brackets are allophones of other sounds.

Bilabial Labio-dental Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar Palatal Labio-velar Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m mː [ɱ] n nː ɲ [ŋ]
Plosive p pː b t tː d dː k kː g gː
Fricative f fː v ð s sː z ʃ ʒ ʁ h
Affricate t͡s t͡ʃ d͡ʒ
Lateral approximant l lː
Approximant [ʋ] j w
Trill r
Flap ɾ

Vowels[edit]

Front Central Back
Close i y ɨ u
Close-mid e ø o
Mid ə
Open-mid ɛ ʲɛ
Near-open [æ]
Open a ɒ

Voicing[edit]

Final devoicing[edit]

Some voiced consonants (/g/, /z/, /v/) are devoiced word-finally, meaning that those consonants shift to their voiceless equivalent at the end of a word. Similarly, other consonants change its sound at the end with a different realisation (/d/ shifts to /ð/ word-finally).

/g/, /z/ and /v/ shift to /k/, /s/ and /f/ respectively as shown below:

  • parov (steam) sounds like parof [paˈɾof]
  • zagez (wrist) sounds like zages [zaˈges]
  • deg (day) sounds like dek [dek].
  • negod (accident) sounds like [neˈgoð]

Voicing elsewhere[edit]

Basically, when a voiced consonant comes before an voiceless one, its sound will often shift to its voiceless equivalent.

  • Example: fogt (dead) sounds like fokt [fokt] (for /g/ shifts to /k/)

Dialectal comparisions[edit]

Vowel sounds in IPA
Standard Bengenese Northwestern Northeastern Southwestern
a a / ə[g] a
ɒ æ
ɛ ɛ
e ɛ e
ʲɛ je
i
ə
o ɔ o
ø
u
y
ɨ
Consonant sounds in IPA
Standard Bengenese Northwestern Northeastern Southwestern
ð t
d͡ʒ ɟ d͡ʒ
v ʋ
ɾ r ɾ r
(C)i (C)ʲ[h]

Examples[edit]

Standard Bengenese Northwestern Northeastern Southwestern
oˈprinːer (oprinner) oˈprinːɛr ɔˈpɾinːeɾ oˈprinːer
zaˈges (zagez) zaˈgɛs zəˈges zaˈges
ˈlʲɛ.vɨ (lévy) ˈlʲɛ.vɨ ˈlje.ʋɨ

Notes[edit]

  1. This sound is realised only at the end of a syllable.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 This sound is realised only if there is another consonant after it.
  3. This digraph was recently added (June 2023) to the Bengenese language (not as a letter in the alphabet though), resembling the sound of the Romanian letter g in front of e and i. More information here.
  4. Common realisation (allophone) of /v/.
  5. The sound [æ] is considered non-standard, however it was reported in some dialects.
  6. This letter was recently added (May 2023) to the alphabet, resembling Czech ě and Russian е.
  7. /ə/ appears only in unstressed a's.
  8. Consonants are palatalised when an i comes after.

See also[edit]